Research Studies

As part of Paranormal Phenomena Research & Investigation’s commitment to the advancement of public education in parapsychology, this section publishes reputable parapsychological research studies.

Extrasensory Perception Studies







  • Sheldrake, R., Lawlor, C., & Turney, J. (1998). Perceptive pets: A survey in London. Rivista di Biologia, 91, 57-74. [Telepathy observed in animals. Animal responses not based on conditioning of routine times/vehicles].





  • Sheldrake, R., & Avraamids, L. (2009). Sensing the sending of SMS messages: An automated test.  Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 5, 272-276. [Statistically significant telepathy results using SMS communication. Re-tested under filmed conditions resulted in statistical significance].


  • Sheldrake, R., & Beharee, A. (2009). A rapid online telepathy testPsychological Reports, 104, 957-970. [Participants were able to guess who sent them a message with statistical significant results. Guessing bias was found. Decline effect found. One subject repeated scored above chance].


  • Sheldrake, R., & Lambert, M. (2007). An automated online telepathy test. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 21(3), 511-522. [Participants were able to guess who sent them a message with statistical significant results. Cheating not completely ruled out. Hit rates were suggestive only. Other forms of ESP couldn’t be ruled out].


  • Sheldrake, R., & Smart, P. (2005). Testing for telepathy in connection with emailsPerceptual and Motor Skills, 101, 771-786. [Participants were able to guess who sent them an email message with statistical significant results. When tested under filmed conditions, statistical significant results were once again obtained].


  • Sheldrake, R., & Smart, P. (2004). Videotaped experiments on telephone telepathyJournal of Parapsychology, 67, 187-206. [Statistical significant results from participants guessing who is calling them (familiar with caller) while being video taped. Results were not significant when the caller was unknown to the participant. Confidence effects successfulness].



  • Sheldrake, R., & Smart, P. (2003). Experimental tests for telephone telepathyJournal of the Society of Psychic Research, 67, 184-199. [Statistical significant results when calls made randomly and at fixed times. Decline in success when participant was unfamiliar with caller. Emotional closeness is seemingly important].


  • Sheldrake, R. (2002). Apparent telepathy between babies and nursing mothers: A surveyJournal of the Society of Psychic Research, 66, 180-184. [Mothers claim milk let down (ready to flow) is a telepathic sign that their baby needs them. 62% experienced milk let down while away from baby, 16% seemed to coincide with baby needing them. 3 women felt something was wrong with baby when they were away from home and later found out they had been in some sort of accident. 5 women woke up shortly before their baby needed them during the night].


  • Sheldrake, R. (2000). Telepathic telephone calls: Two surveysJournal of the Society of Psychic Research, 64, 224-232. [Telepathic telephone calls may be one of the most commonly experienced psychic phenomena].

Mind-Matter Interaction Studies

  • Brucker, M. (2001). 2001: an energy odyssey. The Fürigen Papers. Institute for the Applicationof the Social Sciences. Maienfeld: Switzerland. [Mind-Matter Interaction causes molecular vibrations and heat resulting in structural loss in metal].


Survival of Consciousness Studies


  • Kerr, Christopher W.; Donnelly, James P.; Wright, Scott T.; Kuszczak, Sarah M.; Banas, Anne; Grant, Pei C.; Luczkiewicz, Debra L. (2014). End-of-Life Dreams and Visions: A Longitudinal Study of Hospice Patients’ Experiences. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 17(3), 296–303.doi:10.1089/jpm.2013.0371 [End-of-life dreams and visions (ELDVs) are commonly experienced during the dying process, characterized by a consistent sense of realism and marked emotional significance. ELDVs may be a profound source of potential meaning and comfort for the dying].





  • Williams, B., Ventola, A., & Wilson, M. (2008). Temperature in haunting experiences: A basic primer for paranormal enthusiasts. Retrieved from [Parapsychological studies suggest temperature changes may play a part in some, but probably not all, haunting experiences. Some temperature changes may be subjective while others may have a physical basis measurable using thermometers and thermal sensors. Geomagnetic activity may cause temperature changes via the Peltier effect].


  • Wiseman, R., Watt, C., Stevens, P., Greening, E., & O’Keeffee C. O. (2003). An investigation into alleged ‘hauntings’. British Journal of Psychology, 94(2), 191-211. doi:10.1348/000712603321661886 [Prior knowledge of location being haunted does not correlate to reports of unusual experiences. Unusual experiences correlate significantly with environmental factors such as magnetic fields and lighting levels.].


  • Wilmer, W.H. (1921). Effects of Carbon Monoxide Upon the Eye. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 4(2), 73-90. doi:10.1016/s0002-9394(21)90825-0 [Carbon Monoxide poisoning can cause haunting characteristics to manifest].

Last updated: Tuesday, November, 7 2023